The Civil War ended five months after Sherman marched into Savannah. Minimal. He had defied military principles by operating deep within enemy territory and without lines of supply or communication. "[32] W. Todd Groce, the president of the Georgia Historical Society, stated that the "hard war" practiced by Sherman did not prefigure the "total war" practiced in World War II. to the Sea, the most destructive campaign against a civilian population during the Civil War (1861-65), began in Atlanta on November 15, 1864, and concluded in Savannah on December 21, 1864. Howard's infantry marched through Jonesboro to Gordon, southwest of the state capital, Milledgeville. Shermans March To The Sea ... With Hood moving north and west, Sherman would be pulled away from where he felt he could end the war sooner with fewer casualties, the South. The infantry brigade of Brig. While thousands viewed Sherman as a great liberator and followed his armies to Savannah, others complained of suffering from the Union army’s invasive tactics. Johnson's commitment to the Union, and Lincoln's desire for a nonpartisan, pro-war ticket, persuaded Lincoln to support Johnson for VP on the Union Party ticket in the 1864 election. [9] Still, Grant trusted Sherman's assessment and on November 2, 1864, he sent Sherman a telegram stating simply, "Go as you propose. Historian David J. Eicher wrote, “Sherman had accomplished an amazing task. Other historical analysis however rejects the comparison. There were approximately 3,100 casualties, 2,100 of which were Union soldiers, and the countryside took years to recover. Sherman's "March to the Sea" followed his successful Atlanta Campaign of May to September 1864. The documentary I saw showed the Home Guard, made up of wounded soldiers, boys, and old men, being mowed down. Major General William T. Sherman's personal escort on the Sherman's March to the Sea was the 1st Alabama Cavalry Regiment, a unit made up entirely of Southerners who remained loyal to the Union. Atlanta fell to Sherman's Army in early September 1864. [17], Letter, Sherman to Henry W. Halleck, December 24, 1864. Background In the wake of his successful campaign to capture Atlanta, Major General William T. Sherman began making plans for a march against Savannah. Military and civilian casualties were extremely low. The Union suffered another 18,400 casualties and the Confederates another 12,000. He destroyed much of the South's potential and psychology to wage war,” (Eicher 2001). This page was last edited on 13 December 2020, at 06:23. Sung from the point of view of a Union soldier, the lyrics detail the freeing of slaves and punishing the Confederacy for starting the war. The next morning, Savannah Mayor Richard Dennis Arnold, with a delegation of aldermen and ladies of the city, rode out (until they were unhorsed by fleeing Confederate cavalrymen) to offer a proposition: The city would surrender and offer no resistance, in exchange for General Geary's promise to protect the city's citizens and their property. The March. [6] The twisted and broken railroad rails that the troops heated over fires and wrapped around tree trunks and left behind became known as "Sherman's neckties". ", "Scalawags and Scoundrels? Although his formal orders (excerpted below) specified control over destruction of infrastructure in areas in which his army was unmolested by guerrilla activity, he recognized that supplying an army through liberal foraging would have a destructive effect on the morale of the civilian population it encountered in its wide sweep through the state.[5]. Thousands who had been deceived by their lying papers into the belief that we were being whipped all the time, realized the truth, and have no appetite for a repetition of the same experience. Please make my grateful acknowledgments to your whole army, officers and men. When all is taken into account, the brutal battles, the staggering casualties, families divided against each other, the monumental … [21] The Army wrecked 300 miles (480 km) of railroad and numerous bridges and miles of telegraph lines. Gen. Charles C. Walcutt arrived to stabilize the defense, and the division of Georgia militia launched several hours of badly coordinated attacks, eventually retreating with about 1,100 casualties (of which about 600 were prisoners), versus the Union's 100. The Cavalry Corps of Maj. Gen. Joseph Wheeler, reinforced by a brigade under Brig. According to historian Jacqueline Campbell, the enslaved people often felt betrayed, as they “suffered along with their owners, complicating their decision of whether to flee with or from Union troops.” A Confederate officer cited by Campbell estimated that of some 10,000 enslaved people who trailed along with Sherman’s armies, hundreds died of “hunger, disease, or exposure,” as the Union officers took no actions to help them, (Campbell 2003). to the Sea, the Civil War's most destructive campaign against a civilian population, began in Atlanta on November 15, 1864, and concluded in Savannah on December 21, 1864. Sherman's march to the sea brought the Civil War home to Southern … Sherman's march to the sea was followed by a similarly devastating march through the Carolinas early in 1865, but the … Rail depots, roundhouses, arsenals, and warehouses were torn down and the combustible materials then destroyed by controlled fires. For the Savannah Campaign, Sherman's remaining force of 62,000 men (55,000 infantry, 5,000 cavalry, and 2,000 artillerymen manning 64 guns) was divided into two columns for the march:[1], The Confederate opposition from Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee's Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida was meager. While Howard's wing was delayed near Ball's Bluff, the 1st Alabama Cavalry (a Federal regiment) engaged Confederate pickets. General William Tecumseh Sherman remains famous – or infamous – for his “March to the Sea.” He has been regarded by many Southerners as a horrendous villain of the Civil War. Jacqueline Campbell has written, on the other hand, that some slaves looked upon the Union army's ransacking and invasive actions with disdain. Slocum's wing, accompanied by Sherman, moved to the east, in the direction of Augusta. To this end, each brigade commander will organize a good and sufficient foraging party, under the command of one or more discreet officers, who will gather, near the route traveled, corn or forage of any kind, meat of any kind, vegetables, corn-meal, or whatever is needed by the command, aiming at all times to keep in the wagons at least ten day's provisions for the command and three days' forage. Sherman's decision to operate deep within enemy territory and without supply lines is considered to be one of the major campaigns of the war, and is considered by some historians to be an early example of modern total war. The 360-mile march extended from Atlanta in central Georgia to Savannah on the Atlantic coast and lasted from November 12 to December 22, 1864. Elements of the decline in agriculture persisted through 1920."[26]. Professor Anne J. Bailey of Georgia College and State University has called the March to the Sea the "most destructive campaign against a civilian population during the Civil War." We are not only fighting armies, but a hostile people, and must make old and young, rich and poor, feel the hard hand of war, as well as their organized armies. The operation broke the back of the Confederacy and helped lead to its eventual surrender. Soldiers must not enter the dwellings of the inhabitants, or commit any trespass, but during a halt or a camp they may be permitted to gather turnips, apples, and other vegetables, and to drive in stock of their camp. Considering Sherman's military priorities, however, this tactical maneuver by his enemy to get out of his force's path was welcomed to the point of remarking, "If he will go to the Ohio River, I'll give him rations. Poe directly supervised the destruction of all buildings and structures in Atlanta that could be of any military value to the Confederates once Sherman abandoned the city. Gen. Kilpatrick's, killing one, wounding two and capturing 18. He and the Union Army's commander, Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, believed that the Civil War would come to an end only if the Confederacy's strategic capacity for warfare was decisively broken. Now that Sherman had contact with the Navy fleet under Rear Admiral John A. Dahlgren, he was able to obtain the supplies and siege artillery he required to invest Savannah. In all foraging, of whatever kind, the parties engaged will refrain from abusive or threatening language, and may, where the officer in command thinks proper, give written certificates of the facts, but no receipts, and they will endeavor to leave with each family a reasonable portion for their maintenance. On December 4, Kilpatrick's cavalry routed Wheeler's at the Battle of Waynesboro. During the Jim Crow Era, several writers[29][30][31] claimed that Sherman's March set a precedent for the total war waged during World War II. Courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration, Southeast Region. Sherman's March to the Sea shortened the war by at least six months, at almost nil casualties. Pastures and farmland became campsites, fence rows disappeared, and the countryside was scavenged for firewood. Appomattox: The Battle of Appomattox … The two wings of the army attempted to confuse and deceive the enemy about their destinations; the Confederates could not tell from the initial movements whether Sherman would march on Macon, Augusta, or Savannah. They destroyed the bridge across the Oconee River and then turned south.[11]. For all of the ink written about Sherman and the way he burned, scorched and killed between Atlanta and Savannah, the monstrous event lasted only 22 days. In 1864-65, U.S. soldiers under Sherman’s command marched through Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. ", Western Theater of the American Civil War, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The Civil War This Week: Oct 27-Nov 2, 1864", "Capital Destruction and Economic Growth: The Effects of Sherman's March, 1850-1920", "Historical markers illustrate overlooked stories", Today in Georgia History: March to the Sea, Today in Georgia History: Sherman in Savannah, National Park Service battle descriptions for the Savannah Campaign, National Park Service report on preservation and historic boundaries at the Savannah Campaign battlefields, New Georgia Encyclopedia article on the March, Noah Andre Trudeau Webcast Author Lecture, Georgia Public Broadcasting: 37 weeks - Sherman on the March, Georgia Constitutional Convention of 1861, List of Union Civil War monuments and memorials, List of memorials to the Grand Army of the Republic, List of Confederate monuments and memorials, Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials. As a result, the rebels pushed their limits: there was a steep rise in guerrilla warfare on the part of Confederate civilians. Sherman's March to the Sea (also known as the Savannah Campaign or simply Sherman's March) was a military campaign of the American Civil War conducted through Georgia from November 15 until December 21, 1864, by Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman of the Union Army. Food they carried the faster they could move the Mississippi, did not employ his entire army in... Whom were boys and elderly men named him military governor of Tennessee Southern predictions that the Civil War was ``. Civilian farms and Sherman 's March to the modern principles of scorched earth policies remain. [ 4 ] Sherman therefore planned an operation that has been compared to the Sea. at almost casualties. 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