Stephen anointed Pepin Patrician of the Romans in 754 CE, thus linking him with Constantine the Great and, at Pepin’s request, also anointed Pepin’s young sons and successors Charlemagne and Carloman (l. 751-771 CE). This was the major significance of The Donation of Constantine in that it granted the pope power to engage in temporal, civil, affairs. It then moves into the granting of rights, a ‘donation’ to the church: the Pope is made the supreme religious ruler of many great capitals—including the newly expanded Constantinople—and given control of all the lands given to the church throughout Constantine’s empire. In 753 CE, Stephen crossed the Alps (the first pope to do so) and met with Pepin at Quierzy-sur-Oise to discuss the disposition of the lands he had conquered from the Lombards. Sylvester explains that they are not gods but apostles of Jesus Christ and the author asks if he has any images of them. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. This claim was proven by the priest and scholar Lorenzo Valla in 1439-1440 CE. In imitation of our own power, in order that for that cause the supreme pontificate may not deteriorate, but may rather be adorned with power and glory even more than is the dignity of an earthly rule, behold we giving over to the oft-mentioned most blessed pontiff, our father Sylvester the universal pope, as well our palace, as has been said, as also the city of Rome and all the provinces, districts and cities of Italy or of the western regions; and relinquishing them, by our inviolable gift, to the power and sway of himself or the pontiffs his successors-do decree, by this our godlike charter and imperial constitution, that it shall be so arranged; and do concede that they (the palaces, provinces etc.) The Donation of Constantine As Given in Part 1, Division 96, Chapters 13 and 14 of Gratian's Decretum, or Harmony of the Canons. We also decreed this, that this same venerable one our father Sylvester, the supreme pontiff, and all the pontiffs his successors, might use and bear upon their heads, to the Praise of God and for the honor of St. Peter, the diadem - that is, the crown which we have granted him from our own head, of purest gold and precious gems. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. The Donation of Constantine is often called the most famous forgery of all time, but actually very few people know about it outside of academic circles. Even though the Donation had not been employed to any significant degree since Leo IX, the Church ignored Valla’s work and the Donation continued to be regarded as authentic until cardinal Caesar Baronius (l. 1538-1607 CE) admitted it was a forgery in his Ecclesiastical Annals (written between 1588-1607 CE). He proclaimed it a forgery upon concluding that the Latin was too poor for a 4th-century CE Roman text, that there was no evidence of any change in the administration of the Western Roman Empire from Constantine’s time until its fall which could be attributed to such a document, that portions of the piece were blatantly plagiarized from a 5th-century CE text on Pope Sylvester’s life, and that the emperor of Rome had no legal right to cede his power to any pope. One of the more popular views has the Donation being created in the mid-eighth century at the behest of Pope Stephen II, in order to aid his negotiations with Pepin. Icons, therefore, were obviously approved by God and the Eastern Church was in error to condemn Christian iconography as a pagan practice. The document itself begins with a lengthy prologue on the goodness of God, the sanctity of the Church, and the legitimacy of the papacy. It might be connected to the coronation of Pippin the Short in 754 CE, or the grand imperial coronation of Charlemagne in 800 CE, but could easily have been to aid Papal attempts to challenge Byzantium’s spiritual and secular interests in Italy. he Donation of Constantine (Constitutum Constantini) is doubtless one of the most famous forgeries of the Middle Ages.1 The his- torical genesis of the Donation and the history of its exploitation in the medieval West have been much studied and discussed: the composition The Donation of Constantine is located in the Sala di C… The paintings show Constantine’s vision of the cross, his victory over Maxentius, his baptism, and his subsequent donation of Rome to Sylvester. But he, the most holy pope, did not at all allow that crown of gold to be used over the clerical crown which he wears to the glory of St. Peter; but we placed upon his most holy head, with our own hands, a tiara of gleaming splendor representing the glorious resurrection of our Lord. The Donation of Constantine. Books "Donation of Constantine." Despite containing such a massive benefit to the papacy, the document appears to have been forgotten in the ninth and tenth centuries, when struggles between Rome and Constantinople raged over who was superior, and when the Donation would have been useful. Many children were herded together with their weeping mothers. The Donation of Constantine. The Merovingian Dynasty (c. 450-751 CE) ruled the Franks of Northern Gaul, steadily losing power and authority until, by the reign of King Childeric III (r. 743-751 CE), the monarchy had almost no influence and decisions were made by the office of Mayor of the Palace (equivalent to Prime Minister), who at that time was Pepin the Short. The Donation tells the moving story of how Constantine contracted leprosy all over his body. The controversy over the Donation continued even after Lorenzo Valla proved that the Constitutum Constantini was a forgery.22 Prue Shaw says that for Dante, Constantine's gift of property and temporal power "was the key event in human history which explained the sorry state of the modern world. License. The author then submits to penance for his sins, receives absolution and baptism by Sylvester, and is cleansed of leprosy and filled with the Holy Spirit. By Will Tennille and Jack Mykrantz What was the Donation of Constantine, and how did it change European society and politics? The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Valla applied the textual criticism and interest in history and classics which grew so prominent in the Renaissance to show, among many criticisms and in an attacking style we might not consider academic these days, that the Donation was not written in the fourth century. Pagan priests erected a font on the Capitol and tried to persuade him to fill it with the blood of little children. (Donation, 5-6). When Pope Adrian I (served 772-795 CE) tried to use the Donation with Charlemagne in 778 CE, Charlemagne just ignored him, but Charlemagne was exceptional. The Donation made this same claim and Leo IX referenced it in arguing that the Eastern Church should surrender its authority, and very lucrative land holdings, to the Church of Rome. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 01 Jul 2019. What this meant, if it had been true, was that the Papacy had the legal right to rule a large area of Italy in a secular fashion, which it did during the medieval period. Scopri The Donation of Constantine: A Novel di LeVay, Simon: spedizione gratuita per i clienti Prime e per ordini a partire da 29€ spediti da Amazon. Mark, J. J. The theologian, philosopher, and writer Nicholas of Cusa (l. 1401-1464 CE), best known for his work The Layman on Wisdom and the Mind, seems to have been the first to seriously question the validity of the document and declared it a forgery. At this point, the document decrees the supremacy of the papacy over temporal rulers, granting the office of the pope the authority to grant power to temporal rulers and take it away if deemed necessary, power over all the priests and churches in the world, stipulates the king will act as the pope’s groom in processions, and grants the pope and Church of Rome other privileges and powers. Mark, published on 01 July 2019 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Pepin grew tired of being the power behind the Merovingian throne, issuing dictates which Childeric III was credited for, and wrote to Pope Zachary (served 741-752) explaining the situation and asking, “Is it right that a powerless ruler should continue to bear the title of King?” (Hollister, 108). The Waldensians condemned The Donation of Constantine and the Church’s acceptance of it claiming that it contradicted the virtues of humility and poverty so integral to the spiritual life of a true follower of Christ. Mark, Joshua J. The Donation of Constantine not only solved the papacy’s problems with the Lombards, not only gave the Church the land they had sought, but also attempted to resolve the problems with the Eastern Church in showing how images of the apostles Peter and Paul had saved the soul of Constantine by revealing the message of salvation in his dream. Valla’s attack on the Donation helped promote humanist study and in a small way helped lead to the Reformation. Pepin, for his part, needed the Church to legitimize his reign. The Donation of Constantine. It is a medieval document which pretends to have been written in the early fourth century, giving large areas of land and related political power, as well as religious authority, to Pope Sylvester I (in power from 314 – 335 CE) and his successors. Last modified July 01, 2019. Pepin the Short would have had no idea whether Constantine was legally able to surrender his power to the pope, what that would have meant in ancient Rome, or whether Constantine had even ever had leprosy and been cured, but he would not have questioned Stephen’s claim because he needed papal approval to legitimize his reign. In 1440 a Renaissance Humanist called Valla published a work which broke the Donation down and examined it: the ‘Discourse on the Forgery of the Alleged Donation of Constantine.' Constantine, Donation of, Lat. The latter part of the document reads, in part: We ordain and decree that [the pope] shall have the supremacy as well over the four chief seats Antioch, Alexandria, Constantinople, and Jerusalem, as also over all the churches of God in the whole world. Written by Joshua J. Later popes who made use of the Donation – most notably Leo IX (served 1049-1054 CE) – believed it a genuine document and used it to justify ecclesiastical interference in temporal affairs. Medieval Sourcebook: The Donation of Constantine (c.750-800) This is perhaps the most famous forgery in history. The Donation of Constantine is a forged document purporting to transfer rule and possessions of Europe to Pope Sylvester I. The idea was that the Pope approved the transfer of the great central European crown from the Merovingian dynasty to the Carolingians, and in return, Pepin would not just give the Papacy the rights to Italian lands, but would actually ‘restore’ what had been given long before by Constantine. It then maintains the truth of God as three-in-one embodied in the Holy Trinity of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost and of Jesus Christ as God’s only begotten son before discussing the history of the world from Creation through the Fall of Man as described in the Bible. Throughout the Protestant Reformation, the Donation would appear in various tracts to underscore this same point, and it continued to be mentioned, debated, and argued over into the Enlightenment Period of the 18th century CE after which it was largely forgotten. These lands were formerly the Exarchate of Ravenna, territories which had belonged to the Byzantine Empire, and which Stephen claimed for the Church. The use of the Donation at this meeting with Pepin has never been proven but is considered likely in that, when it shows up again during Charlemagne’s reign, it seems familiar to him. The oldest hoax to have ever existed, The Donation of Constantine is an hoax which even the church admitted to be inexistent. The Civilization of the Middle Ages: A Completely Revised and Expanded... A History Of The Medieval Church 590-1500, Popular religion in the Middle Ages: Western Europe, 1000-1300, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. On the Donation of Constantine di Valla, Lorenzo su AbeBooks.it - ISBN 10: 0674025334 - ISBN 13: 9780674025332 - Harvard Univ Pr - 2007 - Rilegato Valla himself opposed the Donation on religious and political grounds and was no doubt only too happy to apply his considerable critical skills to analyze the text. Le migliori offerte per Valla-On the Donation of Constantine BOOKH NUOVO sono su eBay Confronta prezzi e caratteristiche di prodotti nuovi e usati Molti articoli con consegna gratis! Mark has lived in Greece and Germany and traveled through Egypt. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The Donation of Constantine was a document of great importance in the Middle Ages. 2007-01-01 Leggi «The Donation of Constantine A Vision at the Roman Church & the World in the 21St Century» di Frederick Martin-In-The Fields disponibile su Rakuten Kobo. To the Waldensians, the Church had compromised itself by accepting Constantine’s donation – which they understood as legitimate – and should reject it and reform itself by letting temporal powers concern themselves with temporal objectives while the Church should focus only on spiritual matters. The Lombards had seized large tracts of land in Italy, extending their territories by taking those once claimed by the papacy. We’re not certain who faked the Donation, but it seems to have been written circa 750-800 CE in Latin. 1K likes. The Donation of Constantine became a focal point for early reformers like Martin Luther (l. 1483-1546 CE) who, like the earlier Waldensians he admired, pointed to the document to prove the Church had compromised itself and fallen into sin and corruption. Pepin was illiterate and would not have known what any document Stephen waved at him even said, much less whether it was authentic. Found in the collection of Oratorio di San Silvestro, basilica dei Santi Quattro Coronati, Rome. The Pope is also given the Imperial Palace in Rome and the western empire, and the ability to appoint all kings and emperors ruling there. Leo IX’s insistence on the legitimacy of the Donation, in fact, was a major contributing factor in the Great Schism of 1054 CE which split the Eastern Orthodox Church from the Roman Catholic Church in the west. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Zachary was at this time inundated with various problems he could hardly manage. The Roman Church had no interest in complying but was in such a weakened state at this time it seemed it had no choice. 10-19 [Page 10] THE DONATION OF CONSTANTINE. The Donation of Constantine (Latin: Donatio Constantini) is a forged Roman imperial decree by which the 4th-century emperor Constantine the Great supposedly transferred authority over Rome and the western part of the Roman Empire to the Pope. At the same time, the Church of Rome was being threatened by the Eastern Church and its declaration condemning icons (the so-called First Iconoclastic Controversy) as pagan idolatry. Thank you! Coronation of Pepin the Shortby Acoma (Public Domain). And we decree, as to those most reverend men, the clergy who serve, in different orders, that same holy Roman Church, that they shall have the same advantage, distinction, power and excellence by the glory of which our most illustrious senate is adorned; that is, that they shall be made patricians and consuls, we commanding that they shall also be decorated with the other imperial dignities. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. It was unknown until the middle ages. The legitimacy of the Donation went unquestioned until the Holy Roman Emperor Otto III (r. 996-1002 CE) raised questions about its authenticity. Web. Constitutum Constantini, forged document, probably drafted in the 8th cent. Cite This Work For centuries, until Lorenzo Valla proved it was forgery during the Renaissance it provied the basis for papal territorial and jurisdictional claims in Italy. Among these possesions was primacy over the Patricarchs of Antioch, Jerusalem, Alexandria and Constantinople. He is the author of the History in an Afternoon textbook series. Valla was working as a translator for Alfonso V of Aragon (l. 1396-1458 CE), a patron of the arts with an interest in classical literature, who was involved in a dispute with Pope Eugene IV (served 1431-1447 CE) and needed the Donation discredited. When Pepin was informed of the contents of this document in 756, he confirmed the privileges described in the “Donation” to Pope Stephen, and militarily secured the lands described in the Donation for the Pope. The Donation of Constantine is an interpreted excerpt from a document entitled the Constitutum Constantini, which was itself taken out of the ninth‐century Pseudo‐Isidorian Decretals.The Decretals are the first known incarnation of the Constitutum: but what source the Frankish clerics, anonymous authors of the pseudo‐Isidorian text, were using to reproduce the Constitutum is unknown. Scholars still debate whether the Church knew the document was a forgery all along, and some have offered the excuse that those involved were simply rewriting a document they were sure had existed once but was then lost. It first appeared somewhere around the year 800. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Donation_of_Constantine/. Christian-History.org does not receive any personally identifiable information from the search bar below. "23 Dante marked with the Donation of Constantine The Donation of Constantine or Donation of Rome is a painting by assistants of the Italian renaissance artist Raphael. 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